EDUCATION

Growth and Scope of Artificial Intelligence in India

Narendra Modi-led government has brought a jump into artificial intelligence and training its weapon to counter China’s thrust towards artificial intelligence.

In spite of the fact that we have made a modest beginning and have allocated $480 million to promote artificial intelligence, machine learning and IoT this year, but when it comes to research, have you ever pondered where does India stand?

Well, if we go by different reports, India severely lingers behind its neighbouring nation China. For instance, when it comes to Research and Development, Chinese government spends 2 percent of its GDP on research while India spends a meagre 0.6 percent – contrasted with the measure of its economy.

The fact is that algorithms make their way into the public domain almost instantly. For instance, the different profound learning calculations that have reformed picture acknowledgement and dialect preparing are generally available. Conversely, data, which powers the algorithms, are extremely difficult to obtain and almost never shared. Leading companies like Tesla and Google don’t share their autonomous vehicle data for good reason. Information springs from a combination of unique data and general-purpose algorithms, and increasingly so when cloud power can be pooled and storage is cheap. Chinese companies and the government are centred on collecting their own data, leveraging the algorithms that were produced almost entirely in America.

Surprisingly, nearly 14.42 percent of research is done by the industry, compared to 85.58 per cent at universities, a Scopus Analysis by Neel Shah claims.

India’s Present Situation

If we look at China, there has been a regular collaboration between Chinese corporates, universities and the government over many years, which has now begun to pay off for China. In India, the ratio of industry and university research is not very good compared to other countries. Scopus Analysis shows, about 70 percent of the AI research is at non-Indian companies’ headquarters in India. Google and IBM have published almost 62 percent of all industry research publications, while TCS is only Indian company in the top 10 with 13 percent of all publications.

In terms of the number of engineers graduating every year, India is among the top countries. But the engineering talent in India is largely focused on IT and not research and innovation. The Scopus analysis shows that, out of 129 deemed universities, 67 public institutions, 700 degree-granting institutions, 35,539 affiliated colleges, there are only 15 universities that contribute to almost 42 percent of all research publications. IIT Kharagpur, which is considered as the research hub of the Indian IT sector contributes to just 2.86 percent of research publication.

This shows that India needs massive modernization programmes in new technologies. As rightly said by NITI Aayog CEO Amitabh Kant that IITs and IIITs must redefine themselves as institute driving cutting-edge technologies for the fourth industrial revolution.

AI has been a part of the course at some engineering colleges for almost a decade but what is taught in the colleges is mostly irrelevant to the real world.

Publications In Artificial Intelligence

A White House report states that AI-related patent submission has increased 200 percent in recent years and the country. And in 2017, China produced more academic papers on AI than all of the 28 EU countries combined. However, India lags. Indian academia produces less machine learning papers than a single university in China and all the new companies do lesser than a single company in the US. The country also has the lowest PhD-level AI researchers per capita among major world economies.

Scopus Analysis also pointed out that India’s research is not matching the world’s trend. The country produced less than 600 papers on Artificial Intelligence in 2016, which is probably due to the complexity of research and lack of financial support from the government. However, there is an exponential growth in Computer Vision research. Additionally, the average citation of a top researcher in the world and Indian researcher in India is almost same.

Scopus database indicates that India ranks 6th in the world with respect to scientific publications and is growing at a rate of about 14 percent against the world average of about 4 percent.It’s a positive sign for India.

What India Is Doing To Further Boost AI Research

This year the country’s AI journey could likewise get a lift if NITI Aayog is set to discharge a national approach on AI, which would lay out the extent of its exploration, reception and commercialisation. Reportedly, the choice to frame the advisory group came after news of China’s extraordinary and developing duty in the field of AI.

To additionally spur up the research on artificial intelligence, PM Narendra Modi has dedicated the first AI institute to the nation. The foundation will centre around examining approaches to exploit the energy of artificial intelligence to tackle profound established issues in training, human services, horticulture and framework to quicken social improvement.

IIT- Madras has signed a joint development agreement with Applied Materials India to conduct research in Data sciences, Machine learning and AI. IIT Kharagpur is also setting up a Center of Excellence in AI, which will be seed funded by Capillary Technologies with Rs 5.64 crore.

On A Closing Note

As Scopus analysis features that India researchers are among the best in the world. However, the country needs to aggressively promote research in this field. Large-scale, real-world applications of AI will take time to emerge. But if India wants to be in the global AI race, it should take a leaf out of China’s playbook. The research community in China is far more robust than in India. To promote AI research, there should be a regular collaboration between the Indian IT industry, universities and government. India needs to spend millions on AI research at universities and private firms.

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